As the water flows through the land, it is slowly carved up to a height, cutting through the streams and river valleys. The water carries the eroded rocks, silt, and sand to the lowlands, and the silt accumulates on the beach. This silt changes the shape of the soil and also contains plant nutrients, thus creating a low fertile region.

The largest river in the world by volume is the Amazon River in South America. The river discharges 52 million gallons (200,000 cubic meters) of water into the Atlantic Ocean every second.

The Nile Delta is spread over the Mediterranean Sea about 150 miles (240 km) along the Egyptian coast.

The Gandaki River in Nepal cuts through a ghat in the Himalayas, about 18,000 feet (5,500 m) deeper than the peaks on either side.

Springs and stream

When it rains, the rain water is carried away from the hard rock downhill and into the rivulets. That water also seeps into the ground and seeps into the rock until the springs come out. Rivulets and springwater flow together in streams, and they combine with other streams to form rivers.

Shaping the land

The streams flow through the hills, the cutting valleys are divided into ridges. Smaller streams flow through these ridges, creating more valleys and ridges. This process creates patterns and streams that look like tree branches and twigs. The streams carry the debris to the lowlands.

Valley and Gorges

Most of the river valleys at the top are V-shaped canals, often densely covered with trees. But some rivers flow on dramatic slopes. They can be formed by cutting rivers, even if they are pushed upwards by the compactness of the limestone cave system or by the forces that make up the mountains.

Fertile plains

Rivers flowing down flat hills carry large amounts of silt. Due to torrential rains or the melting of spring snow, rivers swell up to their shores and flood the surrounding landscape. The silt settles in slow-moving floodplains and forms wide flood plains with deep, fertile soils that make excellent farmland.


The river flows in a loop called Menders on its flood plain. The flow cuts off the outer edge of the loop as sludge accumulates on the inner edge, so the menders gradually become more intense. Over time, the river can take shortcuts, leaving separate lakes known as oxbow.

Estuaries and Deltas

When rivers reach the sea, fresh water mixes with salt water. This causes particles trapped in the water to accumulate and settle in thick layers of mud. These can form a muddy mouth or go to sea in the delta. The river flow is divided into several channels on the delta.

See more

>Water cycle and water cycle function.

>Various life relics found in ancient times and their features.

>Excellent soil and soil function characteristics.

>Rock cycle formation process and features.

>The process of forming new rock layers.

>Metamorphic rocks and the process of their formation.